Adger, W.N. 2006. Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change 16: 268–281

Briske, D.D., S.D. Fuhlendorf, and F.E. Smeins. 2006. A Unified Framework for Assessment and Application of Ecological Thresholds. Rangeland Ecol Manage 59:225–236.

Carpenter, S.R. and C. Folke. 2006. Ecology and transformation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21(6): 309-315.

Carpenter, S. R., and W. A. Brock. 2008. Adaptive capacity and traps. Ecology and Society 13(2): 40.

Carr et al. 2007. Applying DPSIR to sustainable development. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 14:543–555.

Carr et al. 2012. Modeling the effects of climate change on eelgrass stability and resilience: future scenarios and leading indicators of collapse. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 448:289-301.

Chapin, III, F.S., G.P. Kofinas, and C. Folke, editors. 2009. Principles of ecosystem stewardship: resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world. Springer, New York, New York, USA.

Dudgeon et al. 2010. Phase shifts and stable states on coral reefs. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 413: 201–216.

Folke et al. 2004. Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 35:557-581.

Folke, C., S. R. Carpenter, B. Walker, M. Scheffer, T. Chapin, and J. Rockström. 2010. Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and Society 15(4): 20.

Granek EF, Polasky S, Kappel CV, Reed DJ, Stoms DM, Koch EW, Kennedy CJ, Cramer LA, Hacker SD, Barbier EB, Aswani S, Ruckelshaus M, Perillo GME, Silliman BR, Muthiga N, Bael D and Wolanski E. 2010. Ecosystem Services as a Common Language for Coastal Ecosystem-Based Management. Conservation Biology 24: 207-216.

Groffman et al. 2006. Ecological Thresholds: The Key to Successful Environmental Management or an Important Concept with No Practical Application? Ecosystems 9:1-13.

Gunderson, L.H. 2000. Ecological Resilience- in theory and application. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31:425-439.

Gunderson, L. H., and C. S. Holling, editors. 2002. Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Island Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

Heinz Foundation. 2008. The State of the Nations Ecosystems. Island Press.

Herrera, I.A. and J. Hovden. 2008. Leading indicators applied to maintenance in the framework of resilience engineering: A conceptual approach. Paper presented at The 3rd Resilience Engineering Symposium, 28 – 30 October 2008, Antibes- Juan Les Pins, France.

Holling C.S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4:1-23.

Huggett, A.J. 2005. The concept and utility of ecological thresholds in biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation 124:301-310

King, D.M. 1997. Comparing Ecosystem Services and Values. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administraion.

Lenton, T.M. 2013. What early warning systems are there for environmental shocks? Environmental Science & Policy 27(1):S60-S75

Ludwig, D., B. Walker, and C. S. Holling. 1997. Sustainability, stability, and resilience. Conservation Ecology [online]1(1): 7. Available from the Internet. URL:

Montefalcone et al 2011. Quantification of Coastal Ecosystem Resilence. University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy. Elsevier Inc

Mumby, P.J., R.S. Steneck, and A. Hastings. 2013. Evidence for and against the existence of alternate attractors in coral reefs. Oikos 122: 481–491

Meadows. D. 2008. Thinking in Systems: A Primer. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Scheffer, M., and S. R. Carpenter. 2003. Catastrophic regime shifts in ecosystems: linking theory to observation.Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18(12):848-656.

Scheffer, M. 2009. Critical Transitions in Nature and Society. Princeton Studies in Complexity.

Suding, K.N. and R.J Hobbs. 2009. Threshold models in restoration and conservation: a developing framework. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24(5)

Turner et al. 2003. A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. PNAS 100(14):8074-8079.

Walker, B., S. Carpenter, J. Anderies, N. Abel, G. Cumming, M. Janssen, L. Lebel, J. Norberg, G. D. Peterson, and R. Pritchard. 2002. Resilience management in social-ecological systems: a working hypothesis for a participatory approach. Conservation Ecology 6(1): 14.

Walker, B., C. S. Holling, S. R. Carpenter, and A. Kinzig. 2004. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social–ecological systems. Ecology and Society 9(2): 5.

Westoby, M., B. Walker, and I. Noy Meir et al. 1989. Opportunistic management for rangelands not at equilibrium. Journal of Range Management 42:266-274.